Geo systems extract stored solar energy from your property. The Earth is a free, can I repeat that, a free solar energy system right beneath your feet. Granted, it's not as efficient as some current high tech systems, but it's free. We can extract this free energy with heat pumps. This is how we can claim efficiencies of 400%. We're not buying this energy, it's energy we already own.
Geothermal / geoexchange systems are simple yet complex. They are nothing more than an application of the laws of physics. There is no witchcraft or techno-magic involved. The complexity arises because the designer and installer must understand pumps, compressors, electrical systems, controls, measurements, site assessments, and many other factors. By comparison, a gas-boiler requires a gas connection pipe, a chimney, and a circulator pump to connect it to the piping and a plug on the wall to plug it into. It's that simple.
A Geo system requires an accurately sized ground loop, critical flow rates through the ground loop and the heat pump and critical flow rates on the load side be it air or water.
Good controls are important and methods to measure all the flow rates are vital.
Accepted industry practices are not adequate and must be improved.
Because the system is site-built instead of unpacked from a box, the selection of components and the care of installation is so important.